1.  Can thermal cameras detect viruses?

The answer is NO. The best the camera can do is tell you if someone has a hotter skin temperature than others. There are many reasons for an elevated body temperature which are not all health-related, such as exercise or even sitting in a warm environment without air-conditioning.

2.  Are the cameras accurate?

The accuracy debate is a significant and controversial discussion with much misinformation running around. When discussing accuracy, there are two considerations:

a. The first consideration is the accuracy of the camera itself versus a blackbody. For those who don’t know, blackbodies are devices which can regulate temperature very accurately (although not all are equal) and have a high emissivity level, which means they are almost not affected by surrounding heat or energy. All thermal cameras are calibrated against blackbodies. Still, some manufacturers have been using them in their EBT solutions to give the camera a consistent temperature reference to which it can adjust. However, this can create other problems regarding thermal imaging vs thermometric – but we’ll get to that later. The accuracy of the camera in this discussion talks about the camera itself. How sensitive the detector is, internal reflections, lens aperture, noise level and the calibration process itself. Also, if you read the fine print, most manufacturers quote accuracy levels which are valid only in a controlled or laboratory environment. As in, a room with a steady 25°C and a slow shift in temperature (not more than 1°C per hour). Most field conditions don’t allow this – so this low level of accuracy is challenging to replicate in practice.

b. The other (and more relevant conversation) starts after the first and focuses on the fact that we are not looking for Covid in black bodies. We are looking for it in humans. And the substance known as human skin acts very differently. Unfortunately, to date there are no medical models which can predict how skin will behave in different scenarios. We don’t know what the external skin temperature of a man weighing X who was exposed for X minutes to direct or indirect sunlight would be. So, while the black body may be spot on – it has no bearing on the temperature reading of humans. 

So, while we can improve the first issue, the second one is more complicated. One way to circumvent it is by using population statistical analysis and looking for the gradient between the healthy population (which does have existing medical models) to the people with a higher temperature which are statistical anomalies for such a camera.

3.  Is there a difference between people with different skin colour?

No - skin, whether dark or light, has the same emissivity, thickness and temperature transference. In a thermal image, you have no idea of the skin color of the individual. More scientific proof that all people are created equal.

4.  Are all thermal cameras suitable for temperature readings?

There is a difference between a thermal camera and a thermometric camera. A thermal camera developed for security and defense are used to detect threats and give situational awareness. We don’t care that two trees with different temperatures will have different colors – we care about the person standing between them. We manipulate the image, so the viewer has a better understanding of what he sees.

With thermometric measurement (as in – thermal temperature reading) we do the exact opposite. We want accurate temperatures readings for each pixel in our screen. A thermometric camera will go through a rigorous calibration together with the lens, which often takes longer. Why? Because we need to offset, in the calibration tables, minute pixel-sized blemishes in the detector and lens. Those blemishes would be invisible in a thermal image – but can skew the temperature reading and produce inaccurate results. Regularly we see suppliers who are using regular thermal cameras with blackbodies to auto adjust the temperature reading as described above. But if you take that same blackbody and move it a meter to one side, you may discover the camera suddenly registers a different temperature – as not all pixels have a uniform calibration.

5.  Does it matter where we scan in humans?

Yes and no. Indeed, the inner canthus of the eye (the tear duct) is the most relevant external point with the best correlation to internal temperature. People looking at the inner canthus will manage to avoid a lot of the effects of ambient temperature on the skin. The tradeoff is that the inner canthus is a tiny area. Since most of the thermal cameras in the EBT market use a 17µm pixel pitch and the human canthus is only about 4-5 millimeters wide, you’d need a big lens (expensive) or to stand very close (and still). Additionally, people would need to remove their glasses.

Most of the world’s health organizations consider the difference between a healthy and sick individual to be 1.5° C (or 2.7° F). That change is consistent whether you’re looking at the tear duct, the forehead or a mouth. Thus, the solutions that look at the gradient temperature (population-based solutions) are just as effective when measuring the ambient temperature on the skin of the population tested. 

6.  Do people need to stop in front of the camera?

Not necessarily. It depends on the speed of the camera and the temperature detection algorithm. Some cameras can detect people walking very quickly as they only need a few frames to detect the temperature. So, if the camera is 9Hz (typical for many EBT cameras), you’ll need three frames to get an alert – you can detect approximately three people per second. No need to stop.

7.  Will the camera work outdoors?

Outdoor environments can be very harsh for a thermometric camera, and most cameras will suffer from false alarms and misses. Some cameras have very advanced compensation algorithms for this, but they can’t take into account all the dynamic temperature changes, humidity, sporadic energy readings and the “bane of thermal imaging” - turbulence. Therefore, the conditions can strain even the most advanced algorithm. Remember, as above – most EBT cameras need a steady environment to control their accuracy.

If you’re still reading, you’re probably asking yourself – why would we ever invest in such flawed technology? The truth is, that after all is said and done – it’s still useful.

The WHO states, that while asymptomatic transmission exists, it’s much less contagious then symptomatic transmission. Some doctors claim that a person with a fever sheds the virus five times more aggressively than a person with no fever.

Another factor is that as summer transitions to fall, we have another threat coming our way: our good old friend, the common flu.  

In the US, last winter alone, the CDC estimated 35.5 million cases of Influenza. With symptoms similar to the flu, pressure for testing for COVID-19 due to sheer panic will be an epidemic in itself. Think about how when one person has symptoms of the disease today, the time it takes for them to get test results leaves anyone who was in contact with them in a state of dread until the results are received (even when negative). Thus, the need to detect fever-related respiratory illnesses will be even more critical

In some countries, there are clear regulations today for businesses to screen individuals for fever as they come into the establishment. While you can have a person in the entrance with a contactless thermometer – let’s remember that he must stop people for a 5-second check each time they come in. That would cause long lines in many places with high traffic. And during testing, standing less than 2 meters from the individual would throw social distancing out the window. If or when he got sick, the next day he would start endangering everyone else he checked.

It’s better to screen automatically and only use the IR thermometer in cases where an alert was triggered and needed to be verified.

We’ve also seen much use of the IR tablets recently. While they are low cost, think about the fact that a person usually needs to stand very close (less than 1 meter) from the monitor to be caught by the camera. Thus, spreading his germs on the glass or plastic cover of the tablet while being screened. The next person will enjoy that germ cocktail delivered by all the people tested before.

Also, let’s not forget the importance of the feeling of security itself. Take, for example, the security guard at the entrance to a bank. Will he be able to stop a well-planned bank robbery? I’ve seen to many Bruce Willis movies to know that’s not the case. To give a more real-life example, all the terrorist attacks committed in or at the entrances to airports were against airports which had extensive security. And yet – would we give up the security in an airport if it’s not 100 percent effective? Of course not.

In conclusion – Thermal EBT cameras are important. They aren’t a miracle cure, and they won’t stop the spread of the virus. And one should be careful of false promises. But along with other solutions (most importantly – masks), they can help protect us during these times and allow the wounded global economy to rejuvenate itself.

If you would like to know more about our solutions – contact us!

Today, the technology is used by all combat and reconnaissance branches of the military and many police forces – so it is frustrating when Hollywood botches it up. Here are 6 misconceptions in depiction of thermal imaging in Hollywood that intelligent viewers should be aware of.

1. "Switching to thermal"

There are many weapon scopes for marksmen and snipers which employ TI technology. However, very few of them incorporate both day scope and a thermal imager. In many cases the scope would be standalone and would require the sniper to remove the existing day scope and replace with the Thermal one. Some products are clip-ons in which case they would be placed in front of the day scope without removing it. But it wouldn't be a click of a button and would still take the guy about a minute to get an image which by that time - the aliens would be shredding the good guys to pieces.

2.  Thermal in color

If this point was unclear – thermal technology does NOT see colors. All colors in thermal imaging are cosmetic. We decide that red is hot, and blue is cold, but we could just as easily use yellow to define cold or pink for hot. The pallet is completely the choice of the manufacture.  In fact, most thermal imaging used for defense or security – don't have color pallets at all and are just grayscale (as opposed to civilian uses). Probably because it's less confusing for a user who is mostly interested in detecting hot objects like people or vehicles which may be a threat. It may be less pretty – but pretty isn't the goal here. Almost all the cameras out there today have a Polarity option which allows to switch between Black-hot and White-hot.

3. "The cooling-disappearing body"

This I actually came across in a video game. When an enemy was shot down – via the thermal weapon sight, the body would then cool down in front of your eyes for a few seconds and gradually disappear. Makes sense, since thermal sees heat, right? Wrong! Algor mortis, the stage when a body gets cold only begins after an hour. During the first hour the body loses approximately 2 degrees and then another degree for every hour until it reaches the surrounding temperature. Obviously, this is affected by the environment, but you can assume it would take a few hours for the body to reach its surrounding temperature, and even then, you need to remember that thermal imaging also sees the substances differently, so a dead human may even appear in a thermal image way after her cools.

4.  Residual heat signatures

In the movie Sicario there is a sick fight scene in tunnels under the border – the whole scene is shown in night vision and in thermal. In fact, director Stefano Sollima gets top marks for realism in this scene and I was debating whether to include it in my list. However, in one scene the guy wearing the thermal monocular on his helmet is following the heat signatures left by the footsteps of the guy before him. Now, I'm not saying it's impossible to see footsteps in thermal – but the ground would have to be pretty cold and that foot would have to be pretty hot to leave a signature. Also, it would have to have been in place for 10-20 seconds to leave a heat signature which would last and be as clear as it appears in the movie.

Can thermal work like an x-ray machine allowing you to see a concealed weapon? Not really. It's simple if you think about it. We wear clothes to protect us from the cold and isolate our body temperature (and avoid getting arrested for public nudity). Those clothes would do the same for a hand gun or bomb. Only if the difference between the body temperature and the object was extreme would you be able to see a difference, and even then, it would be more a general blob of slightly different coloration (not to mention rather uncomfortable!). Also, every additional layer of clothing would make the heat transference to the surface more difficult. So while you could potentially see a gun hidden under a t-shirt, add a jacket and it makes it even harder. Also-also, the airgap would add another level of difficulty in identifying the object as the heat transference would be very weak. So you'd need to press the fabric against the weapon – which would allow us to identify it with our visible light anyway.

My all-time favorite. For some reason, Hollywood has been convincing enough with this little fib, that I get asked about this a lot from customers. I guess movies and video games have been showing this nonsense for years. To be perfectly and unequivocally clear - Thermal CANNOT see through walls. In fact, it can't actually see through windows unless that window is made of Germanium (which would be pretty damn expensive). There is technology that has the capability to see through walls, but doesn't give any type of clear image or an image at all and requires the user to stand very close to the wall – but it's not thermal. Before you start posting links of cameras being are used for inspection or maintenance, let's remember that those cameras are only seeing the surface temperature being transferred to that point on the wall. We can use such cameras for maintenance and none-destructive testing – but we're not going to be seeing any terrorists behind that wall.

Despite my rant, I imagine some of the items above will become incorrect in the future, as companies keep developing the technology. We can do science today which would have been science-fiction less than a decade ago. It's an ever-evolving technology, and Opgal is proud to stand shoulder to shoulder with other competitors who are pushing the technology further every year.